Virginia Department of Forestry
InFOREST
Ecosystem Services Calculators

Air Pollution Benefits Calculator

Forests can provide significant benefits to air quality through their ability to reduce certain air pollutant loads. The i-Tree suite of tools was used to estimate air pollutant removal values attributed to forest cover. The five pollutants considered are carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM10).

The user will be allowed to select either a county level analysis or a project level analysis (custom defined area of interest). Scenarios based on acres lost due to forest conversion or increases in acreage through tree planting efforts can be run to estimate how those changes influence air pollutant load reductions or increases. Users can also modify the percent hardwood and pine found in the forest in their scenarios. These two forest types are different in their annual air pollutant removal benefits since pine stands maintain their evergreen canopies all year and hardwoods are deciduous.

More information on the i-Tree tools can be found at http://www.itreetools.org

Step 1: Define the scale of analysis

Analysis is currently limited to a single Virginia county

Choose a county OR draw a project area in the map. A drawn project area may intersect multiple counties, but the county containing the majority of the project area will be selected automatically.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Draw a project area in the map

The project area must be obtained from the area of interest (AOI) map layer. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI drawing tool.

County containing all or majority of project area: n/a

The analysis is currently limited to a single county. When a drawn project area intersects multiple counties, the county containing the majority of the project area will be selected automatically.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Choose a state/county combination from the list OR select a county in the map

Undo changes and revert back to map selection

The area of interest (AOI) may be specified by a county selection in the map. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI county selection tool.

Step 3: Edit or enter expected forest cover types

Load the current (or baseline) forest cover for the area of interest. Optionally edit or add forest cover acreage to reflect expected changes.
baselinecurrent(+/-)expected(+/-)forest cover
n/a(n/a)(n/a)deciduous forest
n/a(n/a)(n/a)evergreen forest
n/a(n/a)(n/a)other non-forest
nan/a(n/a)n/a(n/a)total acreage (net change)
Deciduous forest cover.
Evergreen forest cover.
Other non-forest cover.

Warning: area of interest size has changed

The modified baseline (current) or expected net change in acreage does not equal zero and may result in an erroneous increase or decrease in the area of interest size. To continue with the analysis, check "I accept these values", otherwise edit the values until the total acreages are the same.

Biodiversity Calculator

The primary goal of this tool is to provide present-day baseline biodiversity information for landscape units at the 6th-level hydrological unit or larger. This information is based on the Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service (VaFWIS). The hope is that Biodiversity 1.0 will provide useful services to the end user and pave the way for additional research that will enable expansion and enhancement of this tool. The tool provides 3 measures of biodiversity and allows for an assessment of expected change to species richness based on user-specified land management scenarios. They include: 1) alpha diversity (i.e., number of observed species); 2) beta diversity; and 3) guild diversity. Note that this tool is designed to get an understanding of overall biodiversity – individual species of interest are not the focus.

  1. Alpha diversity – number of unique species
  2. Beta diversity - This is a measure of commonality of species across a landscape gradient. To calculate beta diversity, a minimum of 2 hydrologic units must be selected. Two measures are reported. Whittaker’s measure produces positive values with no upper limit. Values greater than 10 are rare and indicate a large change in biodiversity across the gradient. Sorensen’s Similarity Index values range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates no overlap and 1 indicates complete overlap of the species present.
  3. Guild diversity – shows the completeness of Bird Response Guilds, based on the Bird Community Index (Connell et al. 1998). 16 response guilds are reported, in terms of the percentage of the guild that is present in the hydrologic unit.

There are three features of this tool that make it different from a habitat suitability index. First, the tool is linked to real field biodiversity data through the species lists from FWIS. Second, the real biodiversity data are linked to landscape features through fragmentation modeling and empirical regression. Third, the regression approach allows for the calculation of uncertainty statistics. Note that this approach is both a strength and a weakness. The strength of the tool is that it allows for some understanding about how various land management scenarios could impact biodiversity. The weakness is that the accuracy of the tool is completely reliant on the accuracy and completeness of the field observations of biodiversity. Use of this tool in combination with a habitat suitability index would provide a more complete understanding of biodiversity in Virginia, and is the subject of future research.

Step 1: Define the scale of analysis

Analysis is currently limited to areas within Virginia 6th-level hydrologic units

Choose a watershed (hydrologic unit) OR draw a project area in the map. A drawn project area may intersect multiple hydrologic units, but the hydrologic unit containing the majority of the project area will be selected automatically.

results are always for the hydrologic unit

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Draw a project area in the map

The project area must be obtained from the area of interest (AOI) map layer. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI drawing tool.

Hydrologic unit containing all or majority of project area: n/a

The analysis is currently limited to a single hydrologic unit. When a drawn project area intersects multiple hydrologic units, the unit containing the majority of the project area will be selected automatically.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Enter a VAHU6 code OR select a hydrologic unit in the map

Undo changes and revert back to map selection

The area of interest (AOI) may be specified by a hydrologic unit selection in the map. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI hydrologic unit selection tool.

hydrologic unit name: n/a

Step 3: Choose database for diversity calculations

type

Choose the database

Two wildlife datasets from the Virginia Dept. of Game & Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) were used to calculate baseline values of diversity.

Geographic Points

This dataset consists of 332,844 wildlife sightings of 1163 unique species at documented locations from June 7, 2007 through June 1, 2010. This dataset contains observations of all official fish and wildlife sightings in Virginia from research, management, permitting, or regulatory review processes and will henceforth be referred to as the geographic point data (VDGIF 2007).

Biota of Virginia

The second dataset, known as the Biota of Virginia (BOVA) database, encompasses wildlife from the geographic point dataset, but also includes information on other non-spatially referenced sightings. This latter dataset includes wildlife information recorded in peer-reviewed literature and gathered from taxonomic experts (VDGIF 2007). A total of 3319 unique species are recorded throughout the state from the BOVA database.

Step 4: Choose expected project area vegetation type

Impact on biodiversity from project area vegetation change can only be calculated using the Geographic Points database.

vegetation

The vegetation inside the project area may be managed as the selected landcover/landuse class in order to evaluate potential change in biodiversity.

Step 4: Choose a watershed for modeling beta diversity (optional)

Enter an additional VAHU6 code OR select another hydrologic unit in the map

Undo changes and revert back to map selection

The beta watershed may be specified by a hydrologic unit selection in the map. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the hydrologic unit selection tool.

beta hydrologic unit name: n/a

Carbon Sequestration Calculator

Carbon Sequestration refers to the ability of plants to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester or store it as carbon in the plant. Forests are by far the best land cover for storing carbon since a high percentage of wood fiber is made up of carbon.

The calculator for carbon will return current and future estimates, if desired, of the amount of carbon sequestered in a forest stand based on user input of stand information. Carbon estimates are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage. The units of measurement provided by these estimates are metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e). This is the unit that is traded in emerging voluntary markets.

For pine stands, if age, trees per acre, and either dominant height or site index are available, the FASTLOB growth and yield model, which was developed by the Virginia Tech Forest Modeling Cooperative, is used to obtain the carbon estimates. Management options of fertilization and thinning are available when the FASTLOB model is used. Otherwise if either basal area or dominant height is available for a stand, the look-up tables from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) model runs can be used to obtain stand level carbon estimates. The FVS model is used for all hardwood and mixed composition stands at this time.

For more information on the FVS model, please visit the web site: http://www.fs.fed.us/fmsc/fvs/

For more information on the FASTLOB model, please visit the web site http://frec.vt.edu/ForestModelingResearchCooperative/fastlob.htm

Step 1: Define the scale of analysis

Analysis is currently limited to areas within Virginia

This calculator only works at the project area scale.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Enter a known stand size OR draw a project area in the map

Undo changes and revert back to map area calculation

The stand size may be obtained from the area of interest (AOI) map layer. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI drawing tool.

Note: the mapped acreage may be overridden, if desired. The stand size must be 1/4 acre or larger.

Step 3: Enter information about the stand of interest

What is the stand composition?

Select which of the three forest groups are most similar to the species composition within the stand.

Carbon Model: FVS

Step 4: Enter additional information about the stand of interest

Select basal area or dominant height:

basal area (sq ft/ac)

Basal Area is the sum of the cross sectional area of the stems per unit area. This is a measure of the stocking density within the stand. Enter the Basal Area of the stand measured in square feet per acre.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 1-300.

dominant height (ft)

Enter the average height in feet of the dominant and codominant trees within the stand.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 1-135

Step 5: Enter additional growth information about the stand

Grow the stand to obtain an estimate of future carbon sequestration?

no yes If yes, how many years?

Carbon Model: FASTLOB

Step 4: Enter additional information about the stand of interest

Select site index or dominant height:

site index (base 25)

Enter the site index in feet at base age 25 years. This is the expected height of a stand on this site at age 25 and is indicative of the site quality.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 35-99.

dominant height (ft)

Enter the average height in feet of the dominant and codominant trees within the stand.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 1-128. It is important to understand that any combination of inputs (dominant height, age, site index, etc.) to FASTLOB that result in a calculation of Basal Area outside of 220 will result in a model run error.

How many trees per acres are in the stand?

Enter the average number (count) of trees on each acre of ground within the stand.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 35-1500.

What is the stand age (years)?

Enter the number of years since the stand was planted or regenerated.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 5-50.

Step 5: Enter OPTIONAL information about the stand of interest

What is the basal area of the stand (sq ft/ac)?(not required)

Basal Area is the sum of the cross sectional area of the stems per unit area. This is a measure of the stocking density within the stand. Enter the Basal Area of the stand measured in square feet per acre.

NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 5-220.

Step 6: Enter additional growth information about the stand

Grow the stand to obtain an estimate of future carbon sequestration?

no yes If yes, how many years?
Age of stand plus years to grow cannot exceed 50 AND years to grow must have a value of 1 – 25 years.

What kind of management to apply to the stand during the growth projection?

fertilization thinning

Fertilization

At what age to fertilize the stand (years)?

Age at fertilization must have a value of 5 - 30 years AND fertilization age must not be less than stand age.

What rate of nitrogen (N) in lbs/acre to apply?

Apply phosphorus (P) in addition to nitrogen (N)? no yes

Thinning

At what age to thin the stand?

Thinning age is no less than 6 years AND greater than or equal to stand age + 1 AND no greater than 75.

Thin the stand to:

row removal rate

Every nth row is being removed.

basal area (sq ft/ac)

The residual or remaining basal area in the stand after thinning. NOTE: The range of acceptable values is 35-130.

Nutrient and Sediment Runoff Calculator

Land cover greatly influences the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment loading that enters our streams, rivers, and lakes. The Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model is used to estimate both tract level and watershed level nutrient and sediment loading based on the landcover found in the area of interest.

The user will be allowed to select the land cover composition in the area of interest and run scenarios based on land conversion or land use changes created by management activities. For example, a user will be able to estimate how planting an open pasture to forestland reduces nutrient and sediment loading. A user can also estimate how converting forestland to open land increases nutrient and sediment loading.

For more information on the GWLF model go to these websites:
http://www.deq.virginia.gov/wqa/pdf/2006ir/2006irdoc/ir06_Pt4_Ch4.1_NPS_Assessment.pdf
http://www.avgwlf.psu.edu/Downloads/GWLFManual.pdf

Step 1: Define the scale of analysis

Analysis is currently limited to areas within Virginia 6th-level hydrologic units

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Draw a project area in the map

The project area must be obtained from the area of interest (AOI) map layer. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI drawing tool.

Hydrologic unit containing all or majority of project area: n/a

The analysis is currently limited to a single hydrologic unit. When a drawn project area intersects multiple hydrologic units, the unit containing the majority of the project area will be selected automatically.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Enter a known 6th-level hydrologic unit code OR select a hydrologic unit in the map

Undo changes and revert back to map selection

The area of interest (AOI) may be specified by a hydrologic unit selection in the map. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI hydrologic unit selection tool.

Hydrologic unit name: n/a

Step 3: Edit or enter expected landuse/landcover types

Load the current (or baseline) landcover/landuse for the area of interest. Optionally edit or add landuse/landcover acreage to reflect expected changes.
baselinecurrent(+/-)expected(+/-)landuse/landcover
n/a(n/a)(n/a)conventional tillage cropland
n/a(n/a)(n/a)conservation tillage cropland
n/a(n/a)(n/a)hay
n/a(n/a)(n/a)grazed pasture (with applied manure or fertilizer)
n/a(n/a)(n/a)grazed pasture (with applied poultry litter)
n/a(n/a)(n/a)confined livestock operation
n/a(n/a)(n/a)unimproved pasture (no applied manure or fertilizer)
n/a(n/a)(n/a)forest
n/a(n/a)(n/a)harvested forest
n/a(n/a)(n/a)barren
n/a(n/a)(n/a)urban pervious
n/a(n/a)(n/a)urban impervious
n/a(n/a)(n/a)water
nan/a(n/a)n/a(n/a)total acreage (net change)
This land cover, also referred to as Hi-Till, includes acres that are primarily tilled using moldboard plows or heavy disks followed by one or more secondary tillage, planting and row cultivation operations that bury nearly all previous crop residue. All of the soil is disturbed. These systems also include harvest and fertilizer and pesticide applications. (Definition found at http://ecat.sc.egov.usda.gov/Help.aspx).
This land cover, also referred to as Lo-Till, covers a broad range of soil tillage systems that leave residue cover on the soil surface, substantially reducing the effects of soil erosion from wind and water. These practices minimize nutrient loss, decreased water storage capacity, crop damage, and decreased farmability. The soil is left undisturbed from harvest to planting except for nutrient amendment. The National Crop Residue Management Survey (Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC)) specifies that 30 percent or more of crop residue must be left after planting to qualify as a conservation tillage system. Some specific types of conservation tillage are Minimum Tillage, Zone Tillage, No-till, Ridge-till, Mulch-till, Reduced-till, Strip-till, Rotational Tillage and Crop Residue Management. (Definition found at http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/terms/ srb9902terms.shtml#term11).
"Hay" is a sub-division of the RESAC (Regional Earth Sciences Application Center) 'Hay/Pasture" land use category based on county distributions between hay and pasture in the USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture".
"Pasture, cattle-grazed" represents grazed pasture areas that receive fertilizer either in the form of directly-deposited manure or commercial fertilizer. This area was calculated based on county distributions between hay and pasture in the USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture and the fraction of pasture assessed at the county level that was grazed, but did not receive poultry litter.
This land cover represents pasture areas that receive fertilizer in the form of poultry litter. This area was calculated based on county distributions between hay and pasture in the USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture and the fraction of pasture assessed at the county level that received poultry litter.
This land use represents confined livestock operations and intensive feeding areas. This area is calculated from county confined livestock inventories in the latest Census of Agriculture. Animal units (AU) are calculated based on the size of individual animals. The total number of AU are then divided by 145 AU/ac and distributed to 12-digit watersheds, resulting in the number of manure acres. This area is deducted from the "pasture" land use category.
This is the pasture area that was considered to be unimproved and/or unmanaged and is not used for cattle grazing. This is marginal land where farmers may allow cattle access just to clean it up. It is usually steep, rocky, and/or with trees in it with little nutrient value for the cattle (DCR, 2008).
This land use category includes a combination of conifer, deciduous, and mixed forest and wetlands land uses classified from the 2000 RESAC data set.
This land use category is a derived land use category comprised of areas that have been harvested where a substantial portion of the forest canopy has been removed because of a timber harvest. This would include clearcuts done for the purpose of development and for silvicultural purposes as well as heavy, partial harvest cuts. This land cover is based on where VDOF indicated forest-harvesting activities were occurring based on remote sensing analysis.
This land use is comprised of a portion of the 2000 RESAC barren category that was not determined to be “disturbed forest”. Examples of this land cover include areas being used for mineral extraction such as mountain top removal sites, excavation pits, beaches, and other bare soil areas.
This represents the combination of pervious fractions from all types of residential and transportation land uses and areas with urban trees. It includes grassed areas such as yards and gardens.
This land use represents the combination of the impervious fractions from all types of residential and transportation land uses. This includes pavement and rooftops.
Surface water bodies are included as a land use to account for all surface area within each watershed. No runoff loads are simulated from this land use.
The total acreage of ‘baseline,’ ‘current’, and ‘expected’ should all be equal unless you want to change the total area of your project area. To achieve this, changes in land use must result in a ‘net change’ of zero. For example, if you increase the forest acreage by 10 acres, you must decrease one or more of the other land use classes by 10 acres.

Warning: area of interest size has changed

The modified baseline (current) or expected net change in acreage does not equal zero and may result in an erroneous increase or decrease in the area of interest size. To continue with the analysis, check "I accept these values", otherwise edit the values until the total acreages are the same.

Open Lands Calculator

This report estimates the area with potential for afforestation within a user-selected region. The uppermost portion applies to the selected region as a whole, while the three tables apply only to the sub-regions falling into one of four riparian buffers. The returned attributes include the area that has a land cover/land use that is considered open and thus available for afforestation. This is followed by the area that met the user specified soil attributes based on SSURGO data. These criteria allow the user to select soil types and slopes that are less suitable for agricultural purposes. Last, the area that was both classified as open and met the user-specified criteria is returned for both the selected region and riparian buffers. The highest gain in water quality from an afforestation project would occur within a riparian buffer. A list of all SSURGO soil map units (and their area) within the selected region is also returned.

Soil attributes were acquired from the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) developed by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). For a given project area, the user can select one of two soil classification systems, land capability or farmland, with categories that specify a soil map units degree of suitability for agricultural purposes. Any soil map unit that meets the user chosen classification value(s) and/or has a slope greater than or equal to the user specified slope cutoff value will be selected.

The following information is returned from the Open Lands tool:

  1. Project area that has a land cover/land use that would be considered Open and thus suitable for afforestation.
  2. Project area within four riparian buffers, 35, 50, 100 and 200 foot, based on the USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD).
  3. Project area that meets the user selected soils criteria.
  4. Project areas within two or more of the above categories (e.g. open, riparian and user selected).
  5. List and area of all SSURGO soil map units within the project area.

For more information on the datasets used, see these websites:

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/?cid=nrcs142p2_053627

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/?cid=nrcs142p2_054226

http://nhd.usgs.gov/

 

Step 1: Define the scale of analysis

Analysis is currently limited to areas within Virginia

This calculator only works at the project area scale.

Step 2: Locate the area of interest

Draw a project area in the map

The project area must be obtained from the area of interest (AOI) map layer. Click the 'use map' button for guidance to the AOI drawing tool.

Step 3: Select a classification system

Either the farmland or land capability classification system can be used to select soil types within your project area.

Land capability classification is a system of grouping soils primarily on the basis of their capability to produce common cultivated crops and pasture plants without deteriorating over a long period.

Farmland classification identifies the location and extent of the most suitable land for producing food, feed, fiber, forage, and oilseed crops. (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/ wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/?cid=nrcs142p2_054226)

Step 4: Choose open land values of interest

Classification: Land Capability

Soils have slight limitations that restrict their use.
Soils have moderate limitations that reduce the choice of plants or require moderate conservation practices.
Soils have severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants or require special conservation practices, or both.
Soils have very severe limitations that restrict the choice of plants or require very careful management, or both.
Soils have little or no hazard of erosion but have other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use mainly to pasture, range, forestland, or wildlife food and cover.
Soils have severe limitations that make them generally unsuited to cultivation and that limit their use mainly to pasture, range, forestland, or wildlife food and cover.
Soils have very severe limitations that make them unsuited to cultivation and that restrict their use mainly to grazing, forestland, or wildlife.
Soils and miscellaneous areas have limitations that preclude their use for commercial plant production and limit their use to recreation, wildlife, or water supply or for esthetic purposes.

Classification: Farmland

Prime farmland is defined as land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and that is available for these uses (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/ wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/?cid=nrcs142p2_054226).

Step 5: Specify a slope cutoff for open land of interest

%

Soil map units that have a dominant component with a slope gradient that is greater than or equal to this value will be selected.
Download this chart to an image file (*.png).
Download this chart to PDF format.

Air Pollution Benefits Charts

County: N/A

Biodiversity Charts

Watershed: N/A

Carbon Sequestration Charts

Location: N/A

Nutrient and Sediment Runoff Charts

Watershed: N/A

chart data:

Open Lands Charts

Location: N/A

Project Name (optional)
Download this report to PDF format, optionally include the map and related charts.
include:

Air Pollution Benefits Report

County: N/A

This report estimates the levels of various air pollutants removed from the atmosphere annually by forest cover in the area of interest mapped for this project. The five pollutants considered are carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM10). The estimates provided here are derived from models used by the suite of i-Tree tools (http://www.itreetools.org./) and UFORE (http://ufore.org/).

Results Summary

Forest Stand Air Pollutant Load Removals

currentexpectednet changeforest stand
(acres)(acres)(acres)
total
deciduous
evergreen
non-forest

currentexpectednet changenet percentair pollutant
(lbs/yr)(lbs/yr)(lbs/yr)change
CO
SO2
NO2
O3
PM10

Notes

Both the weather and air pollutant data used in the iTree-Eco runs on which this report is based were from 2007. The counties were masked with non-waterbody, rural/urban, and forest layers derived from NLCD 2001. In the case of rural LAI, the maximum value within each county was derived from MODIS images acquired from 5/1/2007 through 9/22/2007. However, urban LAI was based on average field data (with 4.9 as the default). The baseline evergreen percentage for each county was derived from NLCD, but given the epoch of data used should be adjusted by the user if improved estimates are available.

iTree-Eco runs for each county used all pollutant monitors in that county (or the nearest monitor geographically if no monitor existed). Weather data were obtained from the most centrally located weather station in each county. Urban and rural lands were separated based on 2000 census boundaries and run separately. The average county "effect" (in terms of air quality) was determined using a weighted average of urban and rural cover effects (weighted by tree cover).

Wildlife Biodiversity Report

Watershed: N/A

The primary goal of this tool is to provide present-day baseline biodiversity information for landscape units at the 6th-level hydrological unit or larger. This information is based on the Virginia Fish and Wildlife Information Service (VaFWIS). The hope is that Biodiversity 1.0 will provide useful services to the end user and pave the way for additional research that will enable expansion and enhancement of this tool. The tool provides 3 measures of biodiversity and allows for an assessment of expected change to species richness based on user-specified land management scenarios. They include: 1) alpha diversity (i.e., number of observed species); 2) beta diversity; and 3) guild diversity. Note that this tool is designed to get an understanding of overall biodiversity - individual species of interest are not the focus.

1. Alpha diversity - the number of unique species

2. Beta diversity - this is the measure of commonality of species across a landscape gradient. To calculate beta diversity, a minimum of 2 hydrologic units must be selected. Two measures are reported. Whittaker's measure produces positive values with no upper limit. Values greater than 10 are rare and indicate a large change in biodiversity across the gradient. Sorensen's Similarity Index values range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates no overlap and 1 indicates complete overlap of the species present.

3. Guild diversity - shows the completeness of Bird Response Guilds, based on the Bird Community Index (Connell et al. 1998). 16 response guilds are reported, in terms of the percentage of the guild that is present in the hydrologic unit.

There are three features of this tool that make it different from a habitat suitability index. First, the tool is linked to real field biodiversity data through the species lists from FWIS. Second, the real biodiversity data are linked to landscape features through fragmentation modeling and empirical regression. Third, the regression approach allows for the calculation of uncertainty statistics. Note that this approach is both a strength and a weakness. The strength of the tool is that it allows for some understanding about how various land management scenarios could impact biodiversity. The weakness is that the accuracy of the tool is completely reliant on the accuracy and completeness of the field observations of biodiversity. Use of this tool in combination with a habitat suitability index would provide a more complete understanding of biodiversity in Virginia, and is the subject of future research.

Selection Criteria

Database:

Results Summary

Warnings and notifications for this scenario

species of concern:

Alpha Diversity (unique species or species richness) - N/A
speciestaxonomic
richnessgroup
all taxonomic groups
aquatic insects
amphibians
birds
crustaceans
fish
mammals
mollusks
other aquatic invertebrates
other terrestrial invertebrates
reptiles
terrestrial invertebrates
Impact to alpha diversity from expected project area vegetation change

Note: Only calculated when the Geographic Points database is selected and the project area is less than 5 percent of the majority hydrologic unit area.

vegetation:

majority richnessrichnesspercent
VAHU6beforeafterchange
n/an/an/an/a
Beta Diversity

Hydrologic units:

WhittakerSorensentaxonomic
speciesspeciesgroup
overlapoverlap
all taxonomic groups
aquatic insects
amphibians
birds
crustaceans
fish
mammals
mollusks
other aquatic invertebrates
other terrestrial invertebrates
reptiles
terrestrial invertebrates
Guild Diversity - N/A

Note: Guild diversity may not be measurable when the Geographic Points database is used.

representedfunctional
percentbird guild
canopy nester
birds of exotic origin
forest generalist
forest ground nester
insectivore - bark prober
interior forest obligate
insectivore ground cleaner
insectivore lower canopy forager
insectivore upper canopy forager
nest predator/brood parasite
open ground nester
resident migratory
single brooded compositional
shrub nester
temperate migrant
trophic guild - omnivore

Carbon Sequestration Report

Location: N/A

This report provides an estimate of both current and future quantities of carbon dioxide sequestered in your forest stand. Carbon sequestration refers to the ability of the forest to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in the forest as wood fiber. The estimated quantity is measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). This unit of measurement is what is currently traded in voluntary markets. The estimates provided here are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage.

It is important to note that the estimates provided here are gross estimates of total carbon dioxide sequestered. The actual quantity of marketable carbon dioxide will be determined by a variety of factors. These factors generally include variables such as type of forest management practice, base lines, discount ratios, and the specific carbon market being traded in. More information on marketing carbon can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension Publication 442-138. This publication can be found at the web site: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-138/442-138.html.

Carbon Model Used:

FVS

Summary of Forest Stand Conditions

Current Stand Conditions:

Species Composition: N/A

Total Acres: NA

Dominant Height (feet): N/A

Basal Area (sq.ft.): NA

Forest Management Options Chosen:

Years Grown: N/A

Results Summary

The carbon sequestration estimates provided below are based on the inputs above for the current stand conditions and the chosen scenario for forest management options. All units of measurement are in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e).

Current Stand: N/A MT CO2e

Notes

Measuring metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e) provides a universal standard of measuring the greenhouse effect of various greenhouse gases. Each greenhouse gas (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide) has its unique measurement of how it contributes to warming of the atmosphere. By converting all greenhouse gases to a common unit of measurement such as MT CO2e it becomes easier to evaluate the effects of each gas and participate in emerging carbon markets.

N/A = not applicable and/or no data entered.

This report provides an estimate of both current and future quantities of carbon dioxide sequestered in your forest stand. Carbon sequestration refers to the ability of the forest to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in the forest as wood fiber. The estimated quantity is measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). This unit of measurement is what is currently traded in voluntary markets. The estimates provided here are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage.

It is important to note that the estimates provided here are gross estimates of total carbon dioxide sequestered. The actual quantity of marketable carbon dioxide will be determined by a variety of factors. These factors generally include variables such as type of forest management practice, base lines, discount ratios, and the specific carbon market being traded in. More information on marketing carbon can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension Publication 442-138. This publication can be found at the web site: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-138/442-138.html.

Carbon Model Used:

FVS

Summary of Forest Stand Conditions

Current Stand Conditions:

Species Composition: N/A

Total Acres: N/A

Dominant Height (feet): N/A

Basal Area (sq.ft.): N/A

Forest Management Options Chosen:

Years Grown: N/A

Results Summary

The carbon sequestration estimates provided below are based on the inputs above for the current stand conditions and the chosen scenario for forest management options. All units of measurement are in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e).

Current Stand: N/A MT CO2e

Projected Stand: N/A MT CO2e

Notes

Measuring metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e) provides a universal standard of measuring the greenhouse effect of various greenhouse gases. Each greenhouse gas (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide) has its unique measurement of how it contributes to warming of the atmosphere. By converting all greenhouse gases to a common unit of measurement such as MT CO2e it becomes easier to evaluate the effects of each gas and participate in emerging carbon markets.

N/A = not applicable and/or no data entered.

This report provides an estimate of both current and future quantities of carbon dioxide sequestered in your forest stand. Carbon sequestration refers to the ability of the forest to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in the forest as wood fiber. The estimated quantity is measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). This unit of measurement is what is currently traded in voluntary markets. The estimates provided here are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage.

It is important to note that the estimates provided here are gross estimates of total carbon dioxide sequestered. The actual quantity of marketable carbon dioxide will be determined by a variety of factors. These factors generally include variables such as type of forest management practice, base lines, discount ratios, and the specific carbon market being traded in. More information on marketing carbon can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension Publication 442-138. This publication can be found at the web site: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-138/442-138.html.

Carbon Model Used:

FASTLOB

Summary of Forest Stand Conditions

Current Stand Conditions:

Species Composition: N/A

Total Acres: N/A

Current Age (years): N/A

Trees per Acre (TPA): N/A

Site Index (Base Age 25): N/A

Dominant Height (feet): N/A

Basal Area (sq.ft.): N/A

Forest Management Options Chosen:

Years Grown: N/A

Age Fertilized (years): N/A

Nitrogen Applied (lbs/acres): N/A

Phosphorus Applied: N/A

Age Thinned (years): N/A

Row Removal Rate (every n rows): N/A

Basal Area Thinned To: N/A

Results Summary

The carbon sequestration estimates provided below are based on the inputs above for the current stand conditions and the chosen scenario for forest management options. All units of measurement are in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e).

Current Stand: N/A MT CO2e

Notes

Measuring metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e) provides a universal standard of measuring the greenhouse effect of various greenhouse gases. Each greenhouse gas (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide) has its unique measurement of how it contributes to warming of the atmosphere. By converting all greenhouse gases to a common unit of measurement such as MT CO2e it becomes easier to evaluate the effects of each gas and participate in emerging carbon markets.

N/A = not applicable and/or no data entered.

This report provides an estimate of both current and future quantities of carbon dioxide sequestered in your forest stand. Carbon sequestration refers to the ability of the forest to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in the forest as wood fiber. The estimated quantity is measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). This unit of measurement is what is currently traded in voluntary markets. The estimates provided here are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage.

It is important to note that the estimates provided here are gross estimates of total carbon dioxide sequestered. The actual quantity of marketable carbon dioxide will be determined by a variety of factors. These factors generally include variables such as type of forest management practice, base lines, discount ratios, and the specific carbon market being traded in. More information on marketing carbon can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension Publication 442-138. This publication can be found at the web site: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-138/442-138.html.

Carbon Model Used:

FASTLOB

Summary of Forest Stand Conditions

Current Stand Conditions:

Species Composition: N/A

Total Acres: N/A

Current Age (years): N/A

Trees per Acre (TPA): N/A

Site Index (Base Age 25): N/A

Dominant Height (feet): N/A

Basal Area (sq.ft.): N/A

Forest Management Options Chosen:

Years Grown: N/A

Age Fertilized (years): N/A

Nitrogen Applied (lbs/acre): N/A

Phosphorus Applied: N/A

Age Thinned (years): N/A

Row Removal Rate (every n rows): N/A

Basal Area Thinned To: N/A

Results Summary

The carbon sequestration estimates provided below are based on the inputs above for the current stand conditions and the chosen scenario for forest management options. All units of measurement are in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e).

Current Stand at N/A years of age: N/A MT CO2e

Projected Stand at N/A years of age: N/A MT CO2e

Notes

Measuring metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e) provides a universal standard of measuring the greenhouse effect of various greenhouse gases. Each greenhouse gas (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide) has its unique measurement of how it contributes to warming of the atmosphere. By converting all greenhouse gases to a common unit of measurement such as MT CO2e it becomes easier to evaluate the effects of each gas and participate in emerging carbon markets.

N/A = not applicable and/or no data entered.

This report provides an estimate of both current and future quantities of carbon dioxide sequestered in your forest stand. Carbon sequestration refers to the ability of the forest to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in the forest as wood fiber. The estimated quantity is measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). This unit of measurement is what is currently traded in voluntary markets. The estimates provided here are for the total above ground biomass, which includes stems, branches, and foliage.

It is important to note that the estimates provided here are gross estimates of total carbon dioxide sequestered. The actual quantity of marketable carbon dioxide will be determined by a variety of factors. These factors generally include variables such as type of forest management practice, base lines, discount ratios, and the specific carbon market being traded in. More information on marketing carbon can be found in the Virginia Tech Extension Publication 442-138. This publication can be found at the web site: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/442/442-138/442-138.html.

Carbon Model Used: FASTLOB

FASTLOB

Summary of Forest Stand Conditions

Current Stand Conditions:

Species Composition: N/A

Total Acres: N/A

Current Age (years): N/A

Trees per Acre (TPA): N/A

Site Index (Base Age 25): N/A

Dominant Height (feet): N/A

Basal Area (sq.ft.): N/A

Forest Management Options Chosen:

Years Grown: N/A

Age Fertilized (years): N/A

Nitrogen Applied (lbs/acre): N/A

Phosphorus Applied: N/A

Age Thinned (years): N/A

Row Removal Rate (every n rows): N/A

Basal Area Thinned To: N/A

Results Summary

The carbon sequestration estimates provided below are based on the inputs above for the current stand conditions and the chosen scenario for forest management options. All units of measurement are in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MT CO2e).

Current Stand at N/A years of age: N/A MT CO2e

Projected Stand at N/A years of age*: N/A MT CO2e

*This projected level of carbon sequestration reflects a removal of N/A MT CO2 when the stand is thinned at age N/A.

Notes

Measuring metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e) provides a universal standard of measuring the greenhouse effect of various greenhouse gases. Each greenhouse gas (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide) has its unique measurement of how it contributes to warming of the atmosphere. By converting all greenhouse gases to a common unit of measurement such as MT CO2e it becomes easier to evaluate the effects of each gas and participate in emerging carbon markets.

N/A = not applicable and/or no data entered.

Nutrient and Sediment Runoff Report

Watershed: N/A

This report estimates the nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loading for the area of interest chosen for this project. These values are based on the various land use/cover types found in the project area. The Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model is used to run the analysis. The GWLF model is a mid-range watershed loading model developed to assess non-point source flow and sediment and nutrient loading from urban and rural watersheds. The GWLF model provides the user with the ability to simulate sediment and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading within a watershed and to estimate the contribution of that loading from the various land uses/covers (e.g., forest, impervious area, pasture, hay, high till) present in the project area.

acresnitrogenphosphorussedimentlanduse/landcover
(lbs/yr)(lbs/yr)(tons/yr)
conventional tillage cropland
conservation tillage cropland
hay
grazed pasture (with applied manure or fertilizer)
grazed pasture (with applied poultry litter)
confined livestock operation
unimproved pasture (no applied manure or fertilizer)
forest
harvested forest
barren
urban pervious
urban impervious
water
total
acresnitrogenphosphorussedimentlanduse/landcover
(lbs/yr)(lbs/yr)(tons/yr)
conventional tillage cropland
conservation tillage cropland
hay
grazed pasture (with applied manure or fertilizer)
grazed pasture (with applied poultry litter)
confined livestock operation
unimproved pasture (no applied manure or fertilizer)
forest
harvested forest
barren
urban pervious
urban impervious
water
net load change
new total

Notes

1) Current watershed loads result from the land use distribution for the 12-digit hydrologic unit watershed in which your project is located.

2) Expected project area changes involve the shifting of acreage from one land use (indicated by a negative (-) acreage and corresponding load changes (+ or -), to one or more other land uses (indicated by a positive (+) acreage(s) and corresponding load changes (+ or -).

Open Lands Report

Location:

This report estimates the amount of area within the area of interest (AOI)/ project area chosen for this analysis that have the potential for afforestation. The top part of the results summary are for the entire AOI while the three tables are just for portions of the AOI that are within one of four riparian buffers. The returned attributes include the area of the AOI/riparian buffer that has a land cover/land use that is considered open and thus available for afforestation. This is followed by the area of the AOI/riparian buffer that met the user specified soil attributes based on SSURGO data. These criteria allow the user to select soil types and slopes that are less suitable for agricultural purposes. Lastly the area that was both classified as open and met the user specified criteria are returned for both the AOI and riparian buffers. The highest gain in water quality from an afforestation project would occur within a riparian buffer. A list of all SSURGO soil map units within the AOI are also returned with their area.

Selection Criteria

Area of Interest (AOI) acres:

Classification system:

Class values selected:

Slope cutoff value selected: %

Results Summary

Area of AOI that is classified as open

acres

Area of AOI that meets user selected criteria

acres

Area of AOI that meets user selected criteria and is classified as open

acres

How much area in each riparian buffer is classified as open?
totalopenotherbuffer
acreslandland usedistance
(acres)(acres)(acres)(ft)
35
50
100
200
How much area in each riparian buffer meets user selected criteria?
totalselectednotbuffer
acreslandselecteddistance
(acres)(acres)(acres)(ft)
35
50
100
200
How much area in each riparian buffer meets user selected criteria and is classified as open?
totalopen landselectedbuffer
acresselectedotherdistance
35
50
100
200
Area in each SSURGO map unit (soil type)*

Map units that were selected based on user inputs are shown below in red.

acresmap unit name (decreasing order of abundance)
0.000Comus silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, frequently flooded

*The sum of the map unit acres may not equal your AOI acres due to missing data in the SSURGO database.

Sponsors and Contributing Partners

Compatibility

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Chrome 32, Firefox 27

Opera 18, and Safari 5

Contact

E-mail the InFOREST Help Team at InFOREST@dof.virginia.gov

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